short answer questions on minerals crystals

Covers chapters 9,10,11

A LOT of videos to view, see below. But they are mostly relatively short.
These videos will be useful in answering the following questions; but as with all videos, they are an important part of exam preparation!


Properties of Minerals I
Physical Properties of Minerals 2
Spreading Ridges Videos (which you looked at for Assign 2)
Shield Volcanos
Strato Volcanoes
Caldera Forming Eruptions
Cinder Cones
Igneous Rock Formation
Geysers and Hotsprings (which you looked at for Assign 2)

A) What is the DIFFERENCE between crystal symmetry (also called “crystal form”) and the property of crystal cleavage?

B) With this in mind– does the common mineral QUARTZ exhibit crystal cleavage? Yes, No. Explain! (See Phys Prop and Mineral Properties videos)

2) Would you consider glacial ice to be a mineral?
Explain your answer.

3) Elements and minerals have their own specific definitions. Make sure that you know them!
Some elements can be found in pure form in nature, and as such they can be considered minerals (and are often referred to as native elements). Which of the following elements are “MINERALS” and present within earth’s crust.
Choose from this list (look up chemical symbols and info, if necessary!): Au, Si, O, Ag, Cu, Al, C, K, Ca, S
Categorize these elements into minerals and non-minerals.

4) View all videos on volcanoes. Review types called strato, composite, fissure eruptions, shield, cinder cone.
Answer the following (It is possible that some of these questions may have multiple correct answers):

a) Which types of volcanoes are the largest in terms of total volume and size?
b) Which types of volcanoes are composed of alternating layers of pyroclastics and lava?
c) Which types of volcanoes are an expected consequence of mafic magmatism?

5) What is the effect of high temperature and high pressure water on the melting temperature of most rocks? (In other words, how does H2O affect rock melting, deep in the earth) Explain!

6) Most granites are dominated by the minerals quartz and feldspar (both K-feldspar and plagioclase). Look up the formulas for these minerals and explain whether or not you think they contain water.

7) Considering you answer to #6 above, think about the water content of magma during crystallization—-
As a magma chamber changes from 90% magma and 10% cooled and crystallized rock to 10% magma and 90% cooled and crystallized rock what happens to the water content of this last little bit of magma. Would you expect the water to go into the minerals that have been crystallizing, or would you expect the water to stay in the magma (leaving a water-rich magma)??

8) Tourmaline is a common pegmatite mineral. Look up the chemical formula for tourmaline.
Tourmaline epitomizes one of the characteristics of minerals; the fact that it can have quite a range of chemical compositions, and still be called tourmaline.
What are some of the rare elements to be found in tourmaline?
List at least 2, preferably 3
(Clarification: “rare” means elements that are NOT to be found in the common rock forming minerals such as quartz, K-feldspar, or plagioclase. Example: Aluminum, Al, is not rare.)

9) Read through the section of “How Magma Forms”.
What sort of mechanism is primarily responsible for generating melting within the rising mantle at both hot spots and mid-ocean ridges? Choose one.
A) decompression melting; B) addition of water; C) addition of heat

AND NOW, for 50% credit on this question– Explain WHY you made that choice!

10) Slow cooling of intrusive (plutonic) igneous rocks is likely to generate what sort of grain size? A) Large crystals; B) Small crystals; C) A combination of both (porphyritic texture)

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